Summary of country practices and examples

Some of the countries with highest levels of poverty and low levels of human development are also those which are relatively most vulnerable to disasters. It is therefore critical to identify practices for integrating DRR relevant for these countries. These practices need to inform the ambitious plans of scaling up public investments proposed by Millennium Report.

The attached table is an inventory of country practices drawn from National Reports for WCDR and examples presented at the January 2005 World Conference’s ISDR-ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Office) Best Practice Public Forum. In the run-up to the MDG Summit in September 2005, the UN Millennium Office is prioritising "quick-win" interventions and MDG-based planning in six (6) pilot countries. It is hoped that these examples enable mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in these interventions better.

ASIA

India
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
31%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG#7:India has launched a development plan incorporating the following: Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), National Watershed Development Project for Rain-fed Areas (NWDPRA), Water Development Programme for Shifting Cultivation (WDPSC), Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS).
Source:WCDR National report
Assistance funding directed at prevention/mitigation? There is a National Disaster Framework covering, amongst others, disaster prevention, mitigation and response strategy. There is a mitigation fund covering a huge gamut of mitigation programmes.
Annual budget for disaster reduction.
Where is the budget allocated? Form of decentralization?
Moreover, a Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) has been set up in each State. 75% of CRF is provided by the government, 25 % by the State. In case the CRF is insufficient, a National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) has been created. 10% of annual allocation of CRF goes to the purchase of equipment for disaster response specialist teams.

Bangladesh
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
42%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG#7: Soil anchoring practices, mangrove protection programmes, the Bangladesh Coastal Greenbelt Project undertaken by the Bangladesh Ministry of Environment and Forests seeks to prevent loss of lives and damage to property by cyclone, storms and associated tidal surges; protect and improve the coastal environment through increased vegetation; help alleviate poverty by generating income through increased tree cover and related activities (cross-cutting relevance to MDG # 1 as well); increase forest resources; increase coastal embankment stability; establish industries based on forest plantation; increase multiple uses for land; create popular awareness on sustainable forest management. MDG#1 Reduce poverty levels amongst very low-income groups such as the fishermen community. The idea of "Change Agents" created: people who are trained in disseminating disaster awareness and knowledge through community, family and people-based early warning systems, and also trained in first aid. (Bangladesh State of the Environment Report, 2001)

Tajikistan
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
unavailable
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG#6 Combating infectious diseases
The ECHO-sponsored Dushanbe Water Contamination Response Programme aims to improve access to safe and potable water supply to targeted health facilities and improving outbreak response capacity in the health system of the capital city. The programme directly addresses MDG#6, which deals with containment of infectious diseases, by increasing preparedness and response levels in case of a possible disaster. It seeks to build community capacity for self-management of health needs by improving public awareness in prevention of water-borne diseases through technical Wat-San support to Infectious Disease Hospitals (IDH) and by installing temporary water bladders and arranging for transporting water to the IDHs. Other specific initiatives to help tackle issues relating to the MDG strategy include improving the city's water-borne disease (WBD) outbreak response capacity, supplying 1st and 2nd line essential drugs to infectious disease hospitals, improving Dushanbe SES and City Health Department's disease database management and outbreak response capacity, health training in diagnosis and management of WBD.

Source: ECHO good practices

Iran
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
16.4%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

Iran did not incorporate DRR into its National Plan for Implementation of the MDGs. Nevertheless, there are clearly determined strategies regarding disaster management in the 4th plans for economic, social and cultural development. As for the economic plan, it reflects the sustainable development spirit (MDG#7). In this regard, the country has developed earth resources protection, water resources protection, a national action plan for deserts and reduction of drought effects, forest development as well as projects related to air, water and environmental pollution. As for social and cultural plans, there are several projects related to human and industrial sewage treatment and expansion of local health plans (MDG#6), measures to improving the key role of women in hazard mitigation programmes and promotion of a seismic safety culture (MDG#3).
Source: WCDR National Report

Disaster vulnerability as a retardant to achieving the MDGs The country clearly recognizes that there is a direct clear-cut connection between the level of development and vulnerability in the face of natural disasters. The crucial interrelationship between natural disasters and environment degradation should be further emphasized. 
Assistance funding directed at prevention/mitigation? Since 1998, a National Plan on Natural Disaster Prevention. In 2003, a loan worth 300 million USD has been obtained from foreign sources and investment. This loan is for the improvement of the old urban fabrics to prevent and mitigate damage arising from disasters. Also special insurance funds. In fact, 50% (in the next future 100%) of agriculture and farming products, housing and commercial units as well as infrastructure are covered by an insurance fund.
Annual budget for disaster reduction.
Where is the budget allocated? Form of decentralization?
2.5% of total budget allocated to DRR.

Philippines
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
15%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

The Philippine National Plan for MDGs does not include an explicit component of DRR. Nevertheless, as for MDG#1,     the government has developed an anti-poverty programme called KALA, which aims to improve: 1) Social protection and security against violence by reducing the risk and vulnerability of the poor to the immediate effects of economic shocks and natural and human-caused disasters; 2) Asset reform by redistributing physical and resource assets to the poor, especially land and credit; 3) Employment and livelihood opportunities by creating jobs through agriculture and fisheries activities and providing seed capital to micro and small business for the poor. Moreover, in the same spirit of MDG#1, the medium-term Development Plan for 2001-2004 was launched. It targeted a total of 880,000 informal and non-settlers for socialized housing package. Priority was accorded to those living in dangerous areas such as riverbanks and other flood-prone areas. The country's water resource management endorses the spirit of MDG#7. The adopted measures reflect a risk reduction orientation by promoting low water use crops, efficient farming practices, irrigation efficiency, and monitoring and forecasting systems for floods and droughts.
Source: WCDR National Report

Assistance funding directed at prevention/mitigation? Preparedness is under the responsibility of OCD (Office of Civil Defence), and mitigation under the DPWH (Department of Public Works and Highways).  Also a part of National Calamity Fund (NCF) goes to pre-disaster expenditure or activities outside the regular budgets of agencies.
Annual budget for disaster reduction.
Where is the budget allocated? Form of decentralization?
The National Government's annual appropriations provide specific budgets for risk identification (spread among four agencies), preparedness and structural mitigation, in addition to budget for emergency response and rehabilitation. According to the NR, only direct costs of disasters are considered. As for government emergency funds for response/facilities, local government units set aside 5% of their estimated regular revenue as local calamity fund. This fund is complemented by the National Calamity fund. A part of it is allocated as Quick Response Fund. Also: emergency reconstruction loans, incurrence.

Mongolia
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
19%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

MDG #1 Loss of resource-based livelihood, increased extreme poverty The National Agency for Disaster Management is moving towards a community-based disaster risk management system to counter the effects of disasters such as severe drought and epidemic diseases which reduced the total number of Mongolian livestock by a third. Since the rural population is heavily dependent on this sector, the result was loss of livelihoods and related skyrocketing of unemployment and poverty figures. MDG #1 Food Security and loss of resource-based livelihoods: National Remote Sensing Centre & Agricultural Risk Study Centre Local authorities collaborated with other NGOs, IT companies, herders and farmers to significantly increase disaster risk knowledge and best practices at the grassroots level coordinated through the "Risk manager" info system. The risk reduction info system consists of a database, an internet website, an integrated information processing with GIS and remote sensing techniques, VSAT data net and local FM radio broadcasting. The Agriculture Risk Study Centre has coordinated activities of all stakeholders and managed to downscale weather prediction to community and farm levels, therefore being able to provide regular information and consulting services to reduce disaster risk. MDG #7 on environmental sustainability & MDG #1 Poverty & Hunger Eradication Pilot activities to promote disaster reduction, such as the use of liquid gas in rural areas to protect bushes and reduce the risk of desertification, is a cross-cutting issue that addresses MDG #7 on environmental sustainability while helping to achieve DRR measures and prevent forced migration due to the inability of the land to provide sustenance to the communities dependent on it. Activities focusing more closely on ensuring the protection of livelihoods, thus helping to eradicate poverty and hunger (MDG #1), include restoring livestock numbers to pre-disaster levels by increasing the use of incubation and other surer reproduction techniques. To help alleviate poverty MDG #1 further, a supplementary source of income is provided by promoting the production of carpets made from male camel wool, thus providing herders with increased levels of financial security. Encouraging the rearing of camels to substitute for cattle losses in drought-prone areas is another effective means of reducing the impact that a disaster such as a drought may have on Mongolian herders, thus protecting their livelihoods and survival further. (MDG #1)
Source: ECHO good practices

Disaster vulnerability as a retardant to achieving the MDGs High Poverty levels, populations living in hazard-prone areas, minimal protection against disaster impact, low coping capacity further eroded by recurring disasters are severe retardants to the MDG process in Mongolia

Vietnam
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
20%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG # 8 Developing a global partnership for development linking to MDG # 7 on Environmental Sustainability The mandate of the Central Environmental Authority covers the coordination of disaster management. The plan also identifies opportunities for regional cooperation (MDG # 8) in environmental management for sustainable development (MDG # 7) that include: disaster reduction; combating the effects of climate change and anticipated sea-level rise; integrated management of watersheds, catchment's areas and floodplains through forest management; and soil and water conservation
Source: Living With Risk


LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN


  OAS - National Disaster Programme, sustainable development practices MDG#7, POHA - Retrofitting of educational & health infrastructure, links to MDG# 2, 5, 6 with the Caribbean Hazard Mitigation Capacity Building Programme [CHAMP] which is an excellent example of regional cooperation and directly supports MDG # 8. The OAS and the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) are implementing a three-year programme to assist countries in the Caribbean region with the development of comprehensive, national hazard vulnerability reduction policies and associated implementation programmes, as well as the development and implementation of safer building training and certificate programmes. (MDG # 8) CDERA member states. www.oas.org/cdera/champ/     


Colombia
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
 
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG # 2 Universal Primary Education directly links to the seismic vulnerability analysis of school building exercise in Santa Fe de Bogotá. This programme in the capital district was developed by Proyectos y Diseños LTDA in April 2000. Most of the school buildings has been built before the standards of the Colombian Code for Seismic-Resistant Buildings were in force. As a result, most of the buildings in Colombia, including many schools, were designed and built without any seismic-resistant criteria. The analysis developed a methodology to be used in all phases of the project, and the staff in the Education Ministry was trained to obtain information for the primary evaluation of seismic vulnerability. Primary evaluations were then conducted in all schools, determining the seismic vulnerability of each. Priorities among individual schools were then assigned according to available budgets. In some cases, more detailed vulnerability analyses and structural retrofitting studies were conducted. (MDG # 2)

Ecuador
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
12%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

MDG # 1 and MDG # 7: A Master Plan for the Management of Flooding Risk in the Hydrographic Basin of the Pedro Carbo River developed. -PREVENTION ACTIONS An Emergency Operational Committee (COE) created to cantonal level and Inter-area and Intra-area Cooperation Mechanisms put in place and tested. Increased coordination among Cantonal and Area Emergency Operational Centres on one side and among Provincial and Cantonal Emergency Operational Committees on the other. - PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS An Early Warming System - EWS (or Sistema de Alerta Rapida - SAT) put in place in Canton Pedro Carbo. Communities strengthened on the issues of flood preparedness, response to risk and emergency situations. Technical staff and Volunteers on Rapid Response to all Emergencies trained. - MITIGATION ACTIONS Eleven movable modular pedestrian bridges constructed to overcome the isolation problems of communities caused by flooding; and 27 Local Civil Defence Volunteers trained on fixed and emergency bridge preparation. Environmental and hydraulic engineering demonstrative work realized. Seven wells were also constructed in seven communities using OPS/OMS models pumps (BOPS -2002, type "flexi").
Source: ECHO good practices


Haiti
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
41%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

MDG#1 is reflected by the Special Program for Food Security. As for MDG#7, Haiti has adopted a water resources management, the National Plan for Climate Change and the National Plan to Fight Desertification.
Source: WCDR National Report


Jamaica
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
 
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

MDG #1 A community-based disaster management project funded by ECHO and with general support from the IFRC promoted hazard recognition skills and the ability to identify critical resources that would increase the capacity to respond to a disaster, thus preventing or reducing loss of livelihoods. Importantly, a Community Disaster Response Team was created and trained in first aid and basic evacuation procedures - skills that were successfully used in prevention of loss of lives by pre-Hurricane Ivan warnings, evacuation and shelter management. The programme was implemented in areas exceptionally vulnerable to natural disasters and poverty. Source: ECHO good practices


SOUTHERN EUROPE

Turkey
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
19%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG MDG # 1 Strengthening disaster resistance, reducing disaster impact and loss of lives and livelihoods. Also link to MDG # 8 "Developing a global partnership for development". The World Bank ProVention Consortium has been promoting "best practice" examples of disaster mitigation and future costs reductions through measures such as a USD 505 million reconstruction loan to Turkey that included measures to update and enforce building codes. Poor quality construction was responsible for many of the lives lost during the massive earthquake of last August. The reconstruction programme will introduce better planning for land use (possible links to MDGs), and requires compulsory insurance for housing. Emergency response management will also be upgraded. It is this kind of programme that the consortium hopes to emulate.
Disaster vulnerability as a retardant to achieving the MDGs Retardant to MDG # 2: Failure to incorporate adequate DRR measures into planning of school buildings contributes to the inability to achieve Universal Primary Education. The May 2003 earthquake in the city of Bingol destroyed 300 buildings and damaged more than 5,000 others. Tragically, the collapse of a school dormitory killed 84 children. The dormitory had only been built in 1998 and was a modern engineered structure. This event occurred four years after the terrible 1999 earthquake in Izmit, Turkey, which killed 20,000 people. It also relaunched the stormy public debate on the prevailing standards and building codes that are applied or, as in the case of the dormitory, not applied. http://www.info-turk.be


AFRICA

Algeria
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
21%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

MDG # 8 Developing global partnerships for development. The Urban Risk Management Programme began case studies of the different earthquake disaster prevention and post-disaster measures taken by the government of Algeria between 1980 and 2004. It details the measures taken and learning activities carried out at country level as well as those involving the cooperation of international organizations. Decision makers need adequate integrated information on the likely (probabilities) intensity of the disaster the city will face so that they could reduce disaster vulnerability. Thus, greater dissemination and access to information through working global partnerships and an integrated disaster risk management programme would be extremely beneficial. Also linked to MDG # 1 as it prevents loss of lives and livelihoods in an urban environment. 

As for MDG#7, The country has adopted the National Action Plan for Environment and Sustainable Development (PNAE-DD), the National Plan for Special Wastes, the Strategy and Action Plan for Bio-diversity (2001) as well as the Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Change (2003). For MDG strategy, it should be noted that a special report is being developed.

Source: ECHO good practices, WCDR National Report

Disaster vulnerability as a retardant to achieving the MDGs Attaining MDG # 7 (Environmental Sustainability) & MDG # 6. Although the Urban Risk Management Programme seeks to better address certain issues, attaining the MD goals is severely retarded by factors such as hydro pollution (both superficial and underground water), marine pollution, soil pollution as well as forest and green space degradation - all of which contribute to increasing Algiers's vulnerability to an already wide range of geological risks such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and tsunamis.

Egypt
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
30.9%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

As for MDG#1, the country has elaborated an anti-poverty plan. As for MDG#3, the government says gender disparities will be eliminated in secondary education by 2005. As for MDG#4, Egypt is expected to reduce infant mortality rate to 25 per 1,000 live births by 2015. The goal of 75% reduction in maternal mortality rate will be achieved since the government was committed to sustaining the rate of decline between 1997-2000, reaching 43 per 100,000 live births. As for MDG#6, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other major diseases is no longer a threat to public health. As for MDG#7, Egypt has a water resources management, the National Environmental Action Plan 2002-2017.

Source: WCDR National Report

Assistance funding directed at prevention/mitigation? There is a special Environmental Protection Fund (EPF). Its resources are allocated to confronting pollution.
Annual budget for disaster reduction.
Where is the budget allocated? Form of decentralization?
The budget is divided between different ministerial departments - resorting from the National Budget.

Ethiopia
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
55%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

As for MDG#1, the country has developed a poverty reduction strategy (incorporated into its National Development Plan) and the New Food Security Coalition (as a part of the food security programme and a drought-induced disaster reduction plan). As for MDG#7, the country ratified the National Water Resources in the year 2000.

Source: WCDR National Report


Morocco
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
34%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

In 1995, the country adopted a National Strategy for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development (MDG#7). In this regard, numerous actions, projects and plans were progressively adopted. Amongst them are projects focused on climate change, forest protection, water and agriculture sectors, greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy. The country has also elaborated a National Action Programme to Fight desertification, which aims, amongst others, to incorporate a strategy to eradicate poverty (MDG#1). There is also a plan for sanitation and epidemiological surveillance (MDG#6). A good example for sustainable development (MDG#7) can be reflected by the national evaluation report on the programme called ''Action 21''.

Source: WCDR National Report

Disaster vulnerability as a retardant to achieving the MDGs  
Assistance funding directed at prevention/mitigation? Nevertheless, an interesting initiative. The Direction of Insurance (Ministry of Finance and Privatization) has put in place a guarantee system for specific risks. Also in 1995, a convention was signed between the ministries of economy, finance, agriculture and rural development, fishing development, and a number of banks on ''drought'' insurance. Information about assistance funding is difficult to substrate because it is not clear how the DRR platform is structured. 
Annual budget for disaster reduction.
Where is the budget allocated? Form of decentralization?
To different ministries and departments. Also local communities receive part of budget for DRR

Niger
Human Poverty Index
(Expressed in values, Human Development Report, UNDP, 2004)
61%
Country level examples of DRR practices relevant to specific MDG

The country launched a large gamut of strategies/policies focused on sustainable development and poverty reduction. As for sustainable development (MDG#7), there are the National Environmental Plan for Sustainable Development ( PNEDD), the Strategy for Sustainable Rural Growth, the Programme for Sanitation Development (PDS) launched in 2000, the National Plan and Strategy for Biodiversity and several programs concerning water management. As for poverty reduction (MDG#1), a good example is the Operational Strategy for Food Security (SOSA) launched in 2001 and completed with the Global National Programme for Food Security (PNGSA) as well as the Strategy for Poverty Reduction (SRP) adopted in 2002. In this regard, The Strategy for Rural Development (SDR) emphases as well sustainable development (MDG#7) through the sustainable management of natural resources, as well as poverty reduction through a food security policy.

Source: WCDR National Report

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