Local Government Profile
"We have taken a comprehensive approach to managing disasters and enhancing the resilience of 6.5 million slum dwellers. Safe journey is our destination."
Hazard and vulnerability profile
Vulnerabilities of Mumbai:
1. Concentrated Political, Economic and Other Resources
2. Multiple agencies are responsible for the governance of the city
3. Insular location
4. Physiographic constraints resulting in limited land supply and consequently very high density of population
and exorbitant property prices.
5. Large tracts of reclaimed land due to which landfill areas have high risk of liquefaction during an earthquake.
6. Rainfall characteristics which make the city prone to flooding, particularly when heavy rainfall coincides with
high tide. There are 266 flooding spots within the city, of which 55 are chronic flooding spots.
7. 170 km long coastline with 57 slum settlements within the high tide line.
8. According to IS‐1893 Mumbai lies in seismic zone III and has moderate risk to earthquakes.
9. Economic polarization with 40% of the households in Mumbai below the poverty line.
10. 50‐60% of the population living in slums
11. Quarrying of hills
12. High levels of spatial concentration of population
13. 6.3 million commuters travelling on the Mumbai Suburban Railway network ‐ the highest commuter
density in the World.
14. Building stock comprising a mix of several different building technologies. Almost 90% of the buildings
located in the ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ wards in Island City are dilapidated ‐ many in a state of imminent collapse.
15. Inadequate transport facilities with no redundancy in the existing systems. The existing transport network
is composed of long unidirectional corridors without adequate alternatives to fall back on in case these arterial
communication lines are severed.
16. Utilities like water supply, sewerage systems and garbage collection and disposal deficient, and health
services are inadequate. Mumbai’s water supply depends on several rain fed lakes so increasing rainfall
variability could threaten local supply.
17. Presence of hazardous industries – the eastern suburbs has a cluster of two oil refineries, a petro‐chemical
complex, a fertiliser plant, a thermal power unit, and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
18. Over 750 hazardous substances are stored in different parts of the city.
19. Proximity to Bombay High and the presence of two ports makes Mumbai highly vulnerable to marine
20. Uncontrolled development has resulted in wanton destruction of mangroves and haphazard and
unregulated reclamation of the sea‐coast.
Disaster Risk Reduction Activities
Measures initiated to mitigate flooding of rivers include widening and deepening of the Mithi, Dahisar, Poisar and Oshiwara Rivers. Millions of cubic meters of silt and hard rock has been excavated from the river bed and structures have also been demolished in order to widen the river. Storm water drainage systems have been cleaned, desilted, and augmented to deal with larger storms.
Additionally, new storm water pumping stations were installed to discharge incoming storm water flow to the sea. Automatic weather stations have been installed through out Mumbai to get real time intensity of rain fall. Flow Gauges have been installed upstream in the Mithi River to monitor water flow and issue warnings to the down stream population.
Construction of four Cyclone Mitigation Shelters with financial aid from the World Bank benefits the community. Communication between city officials has also been improved with the establishment of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) systems to provide voice, data and video communication during disasters.
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