Local Government Profile
Hazard and vulnerability profile
In implementing the flood protection and mitigation, BMA set up Flood Control Center as a flood
protection information center of which main networking station is located on the 6th floor of Department of
Drainage and Sewerage, BMA Office 2 in Din Daeng district and other 75 sub-stations are installed at pump
stations and water gates across Bangkok, on the east and west sides of Chao Praya river.
Flood Control Center (FCC) which supervises the hydrological conditions linking directly with the radar
of Meteorology Department and of BMA. FCC has been serving as a decision making tools for DDS flood
protection teams for accurate and immediate directive to solve flood problems effectively.
Monitoring stations monitor real time data of rainfall, water levels, pumps operation, water gates
operation and water quality were installed and later were increased into 75 stations. In addition to this, the
department is now implementing a flood forecasting program aiming at forecasting rainfall intensity and flood
forecasting in 650 km2 of the east bank area which will enable BMA staffs to forecasting flood condition 3-6
hours in advance.
Moreover, FCC serves people with the flood forecasting news and the flood protection and solution. We
use several communication tools in informing people and communities such as radio broadcasting, traffic
billboards and BMA’s website.
Disaster Risk Reduction Activities
Due to rapid urbanization of Bangkok, waterbody such as ponds, wells, canals, and ditches were filled up and replaced
by buildings and other structures. This often caused flooding and became a severe problem accordingly. The major
flooding in Bangkok in the past were in the years 1942, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1995, and 1996. Flooding in the year
1983 was considered the most severe and caused great damage which cost around 6,600 million baht
The causes of flood are as follows:
- Heavy rainfall in short period of time results in inability to immediately drain water from roads, lanes and
houses causing temporary flooding.
- Run-off from the northern and eastern parts flowing through Bangkok due to the slope of ground level. This
mostly causes flooding problem in the eastern part of Bangkok
- Excessive run-off from the North and Chao Phraya River Basin flowing through Bangkok to the sea causing
overflow and flooding in the area.
- The effect of high tide from the sea which occurred in the same time of excessive run-off from the North
through Bangkok causing high water level in Chao Phraya river.
- Land subsidence due to pumping of large amount of underground water which makes the area subside to the
level lower than mean sea level causing difficulty in draining of inundation.
- Insufficient drainage system
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