Local Government Profile
"Because of the institutional credibility, when we approach donors, we are pretty successful at accessing the help of bilateral and international agencies. "
Hazard and vulnerability profile
1. Mayon Volcano Eruption affecting 5 municipalities and
three cities with about 120,000 threatened population due
to pyroclastic flow, mudflow and lava flow.
2. Typhoon causing floods, landslides, mudflow, storm surge
and with strong winds affecting about 1.2M population and
can destroy 190,000 houses
3. Earthquake that may cause tsunami threatening about
4. Major landslides caused by other weather hazards that
may affect 116 barangays or about 40,173 household
5. Fire due to thousands of houses owned by informal
Disaster Risk Reduction Activities
With institutionalized Albay Public Safety & Emergency
Management Office (APSEMO), regular annual bufget
appropriation, permanent personnel, institutionalized
research and education in partnership with academe, with
safe school and safe hospital programs in partnership with
Dept of Education, Dept of Health supported by AECID-Spain,
with risk maps developed by PHIVOLCS, Mines and Geo-
Sciences Bureau as well as by the Local Government Units ,
Population data by type of hazard existing on file used as
input in planning and currently conducting integration of DRR
to Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Education and training s
are done by the local technical staff of APSEMO, Structural
projects as part of the regular program.
Role Model in Institutionalised and innovative disaster risk management
Indicator 1-1. Are local organizations (including local government) sufficiently equipped with capacities (knowledge, experience, official mandate) for climate and disaster risk reduction?
Provincial Government of Albay has three organizations tackling with Disaster: APSEMO for DRR and disaster response; CIRCA for climate risk reduction and adaptation and; AMDGO for disaster reconstruction. Institutionalization of CIRCA and AMDGO by the governor, Salceda, the comprehensive organization structure from DRR to recovery is completed.
Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO)
As a permanent Disaster Risk Management Office (DRMO) created in 1995, it is empowered to govern provincial disaster risk reduction and management programs and project to facilitate disaster risk reduction and ensure a sustainable socio-economic growth and development. As the hub of coordination, communication and emergency response in all types of emergencies and disasters, it takes responsibility but also coordinates during and after disaster as shown in the table below. Since Joey Salceda became Governor of Albay in 2007, the objective of “zero casualty” has been attained.
HFA2 Collecting and maintain data on hazards as a data bank, and has established Early Warning System, Communication Protocol and Evacuation Procedures at the community level
HFA3 Developed a manual for teachers which technically supports schools for disaster drills
HFA4 Integrated Disaster Risk Reduction in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan
HFA5 Intensifying Hazard Awareness through Community-Based Trainings and Seminars
Disaster Response Coordinating as secretariat during and after disasters
• CIRCA (Center for Initiatives and Research for Climate Adaptation)
The governor, Salceda, had established CIRCA (Center for Initiatives and Research for Climate Adaptation) for the environmental protection and for the rehabilitation of mangroves and eco-system. CIRCA, established in 2008, primarily focuses on research, policy formulations studies and information management of climate change and its adaptation, and climate risk reduction. This organization also contributes to “zero casualty” program, which is a combination of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures. With its interdisciplinary knowledge, it has objects to enhance the coping abilities of Albay residents to the threats brought about by the changing climate and to specifically develop the environmental awareness of the various livelihood sectors of the province. Some of its projects are to enhance awareness of the various sectors of the threats by a changing climate and integrating DDR and CCA into school curriculum (HFA 3); to conduct and explore concrete policy studies that will support better climate risk adaptation (HFA 3); to promote climate risk adaptation by enhancing resilience of the most vulnerable groups, such as programs for river cleanup, mangrove planting (HFA 4) and capacity development for community (HFA 5).
Albay Millennium Development Goal (AMDGO)
In July 2007, the governor, Salceda, as the Chie Executive of the Province of Albay, scaled-up the Albay Ayuda as a task unit of the Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (PDCC) into Albay Mabuhay Task Force as oversight to the cluster approach to Albays rehabilitation. In 2009, as a step-up in recovery efforts of Albay and to bring about a sustained safe and shared development, the Albay Millennium Development Goals Office (AMDGO) was institutionalized into a program office, by virtue of Executive Order 2009-11. The AMDGO manages the social assets program of the province; oversight the MDG progress; and, coordinate MDG programs within the functional units of the government with NGAs, NGOs, and INGOs. At present, AMDGO has a staff complement of 17, with a senior staff as Program Coordinator, and an organic budget of 2 Million Peso in 2010. The APSEMO coordinates disaster response efforts while AMDGO coordinates disaster recovery efforts through a cluster approach.
Reference: Innovative Humanitarian Response within a disaster risk reduction and management model, pictures in LGU Summit +3i (1st day), Province of Albay, PH: Responding to the challenge of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 1-2. Are there partnerships between communities, private sector and local authorities to reduce risk?
Albay province has partnerships for reducing risks with a variety kind of sectors.
Early Warning Systems (HFA 2): Mobile phone sim pack was made available.
Early Warning System was established by the governor, Salceda, to provide real-time warning for flood, landslides and mudflow using rain gauges installed at the barangay and city/municipal levels. It is supported with communication equipment to make evacuation procedures become effective to realize Zero Casualty. The Governor had secured funding assistance from the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) in the amount of 12.5 million Peso to make available Provincial Radio Communication facilities with back up mobile radio with repeater system to sustain word and data communication system even during the height of calamity.
In addition, local radio stations, which are members of Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (PDRRMC) committee (Refer to 10-3), disseminate early warning through their broadcasts.
Using Knowledge to build Resilience (HFA 3): Disseminating good practice with NGO
To disseminate its good practice and make LGUs (Local Government Unite) resilient to natural disasters, the governor, Salceda, of Albay Province agreed the partnership with Oxfam Great Britain in the Philippines, contributing to the compilation and dissemination of good practices on disaster risk management at national and local levels in the Philippines, publishing “Building Resilient Communities: Good Practices in Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines” one of which chapters introduces Albay’s Permanent Risk Management Office. This documentation was shared and widely disseminated to all LGUs in the country, and the customized adoption of a permanent Disaster Risk Management Office (DRMO) has been replicated in some provinces. And also another publication “Innovative Humanitarian Response within a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Model: Learning from the 2009 Mayon Volcano Eruption” made available as resource documents for other LGUs.
Reducing Risk Factors (HFA 4): Cooperation from private sector for Climate Change Mitigation
The governor, Salceda, led Special Proclamation Resolution 2007-04 which stipulates that all businesses to be established in the province should be consistent with climate change adaptation otherwise it will not be granted a business permit to operate. The Energy Development Corp. has been assisting Albay in its mangrove reforestation program and other environmental projects through cooperatives and farmers’ groups in its geothermal reservation area while the Palanog Cement Factory (Business Sector) is practicing the substitution of fossil fuels by rice hull to reduce green house gas emission.
Capacity building (HFA 5): Emergency Paramedic Training Unit
Upon the initiative of the governor, Salceda, the Bicol University, Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital and APSEMO had established Emergency Paramedic Training Unit in 2008 having a total graduate now of 185 Emergency Medical Responders serving as the Albay Health Emergency Management. Members of the team work as volunteers in times of disaster. Albay has DRR/CCA Team serving as resource persons during seminars nationwide and even outside the country.
Training and Seminars all over the province to include LGUs, Business Sectors, Academe and NGOs are instrument in making Albay safe. The knowledge and skills imparted to all sectors ensure reduced risk in all sectors as they developed their individual contingency plan and improve coping mechanism making the entire province more resilient. The Governor had appropriated funding for the trainings through APSEMO and CIRCA.
Reference: Province of Albay, PH: Responding to the challenge of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, Building Resilient Communities: Good Practices in Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines, Innovative Humanitarian Response within a disaster risk reduction and management model, Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 1-3. Does the local government support local communities (particularly women, elderly, infirmed, children) to actively participate in risk reduction decision-making, policy making, planning and implementation processes?
The governor, Salceda had organized LGUs (Local Government Units) through meetings and conferences to establish networking as well as planning and programming to integrate DRR/CCA in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP), where gender, handicap children, elderly are integral part of planning process. And APSEMO became a regular member of the Provincial Land Use Committee (PLUC) ensure that participative DRR planning consulted down to the community level before it is integrated In the CLUP of the province and policy direction as well.
Reference: Building Resilient Communities: Good Practices in Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 1-4. Does the local government participate in the national DRR planning?
The Albay leadership of the governor, Salceda, has been influencing national policy through supporting not only several bills in the Philippines Congress but also Albay hosted two separate national conferences. Experience of Albay has contributed to enactment of Republic Act 10121 “An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Risk Reduction and Management Plan” enacted in 2010. And Albay hosted two national conferences resulted in “Albay 2007 Declarations” and “Manila 2009 Declarations” which has become a tool for the early passage of the Climate Change Act and the creation of the Climate Change Commission which is the sole national-level policy-making body tasked to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the programs and action plans of the government relating to climate change.
Reference: Province of Albay, PH: Responding to the challenge of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, Innovative Humanitarian Response within a disaster risk reduction and management model
Indicator 2-1. Are financial services (e.g. saving and credit schemes, macro and micro-insurance) available to vulnerable and marginalised households for pre- and/or post-disaster times?
To sustain recovery efforts, the governor, Salceda, through an initial 2 million Peso budget, initiated the Bayan-Anihan in partnership with the Department of Agriculture, as a post disaster program where backyard vegetable farms in limited production areas such as the resettlement site are established as a strategy to both climate change adaptation and the combat of poverty and hunger. The governor says “these kinds of programmes are part of our climate change adaptation strategy and at the same time, a way to eradicate poverty and hunger in the Province of Albay (quoted from “Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience”).
In addition to normal situations, for relocation sites, livelihood programme is conducted by AMDGO which was institutionalized the governor, Salceda. More than 4,800 farmers who are in the eight kilometer danger zone of Mayon volcano have been provided assistance in the past few years, such a credit assistance, livelihood trainings and short courses on land preparation techniques, better use of fertilizers, as well as non-farm entrepreneurial courses.
Reference: Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience
Indicator 2-2. Are micro finance, cash aid, soft loans, lone guarantees etc available after disasters to restart livelihoods?
In the aftermath of the three devastating typhoons that hit Albay in 2006, the governor, Salceda, in partnership with the Department of Social Welfare and Development Office V (DSWD), accessed a 32.5 million Peso Bicol Calamity Assistance for Rehabilitation Effort (B-CARE) Fund for the implementation of the Self Employment Assistance sa Kaunlaran (SEA-K) to farmers and fisherfolks, the most vulnerable sector in the province. The program was designed to provide alternative source of income to this sector, while they are still in the process of reviving their lands for farming. The target beneficiaries were 260 farmer/fisherfolk clusters with a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 25. However, the target was exceeded by 29 clusters. Each cluster is eligible a loanable amount of 75,000.00 Peso for 15 members and 125,000.00 Peso with 25 members. The project has to be agriculture related like crop production, aquaculture, livestock raising, food processing, handicrafts and other feasible entrepreneurial activities. The interest free loan by the cluster is payable in 8 months, which amount shall be returned to DSWD. To apply the micro finance, associations or groups have to be endorsed to AMDGO by their barangay captains and Municipal Agriculture Officer. If AMDGO validates their proposal sustainable, they are qualified. But if not they are rejected. In this programme, 289 groups or 6,500 persons got the support, each person at 5,000 Peso, in total 32,500,000 Peso.
For the transport sector, the governor, Salceda, accessed funds from the Philippine Postal Savings Bank worth 50 Million Peso from Road User’s Tax. The project follows the framework and scheme of the SEA-K program.
For the Cooperatives Sector, the governor, Salceda, accessed the Credit Surety Fund program of the Central Bank of the Philippines and its partner agencies in providing for additional capitalization for active and qualified cooperatives in the province. Any qualified cooperative can apply for a loan from the program of a minimum of 1 million Peso and a maximum of 4 million Peso. This is to continuously provide for jobs/employment in the country-side.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, AMDGO and Albay Mabuhay Village Federation (Anislag Resettlement Site)
Indicator 2-3. Do local business associations, such as chambers of commerce and similar, support efforts of small enterprises for business continuity during and after disasters?
• Business, Bankers and Economic Sectors are recipients of DRR Training and Seminars. They represented in the membership of PDRRMC as sectoral representative. They are recognized by the Governor as support sectors both as preparedness and mitigation particularly on policy declaration and decision-making participation. Business sectors are specifically involved in community-based DRR not only to support relief but also in reconstruction and resettlements. The governor has been a resource person of business sectors both local and national where DRR and CCA are considered integral parts.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 2-4. Are there any economic incentives for DRR actions (e.g. reduced insurance premiums for households, tax holidays for businesses)?
• Loan deferral has been negotiated by the governor, Salceda, with local banks, etc, to suspend payment for amortization of loans by disaster stricken victims which are always granted.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO and AMDGO
Indicator 2-5. Does the local government has access to adequate financial resources to carry out risk reduction activities?
• Recognizing the importance of DRR and CCA by the governor, Salceda, Provincial Government of Albay allocated 4.37% of budget to DRR and 0.25% to CCA (in total 4.62%) in 2010 according to the record from Budget Office.
• Not only internal budget, Albay Province led by the governor, Salceda, is making efforts to get external fund for DDR, Disaster Response and Climate Change Adaptation as listed in the table below. In addition, to secure safety of more residents, APSEMO also get 500,000,000 Peso from JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) to construct another 6 Evacuation Shelter from next year.
APSEMO CIRCA AMDGO
Amount 24,203,105 Peso 400,000 US$ 32,500,000 Peso
Fund source AECID (Agencia Española de Cooperacion Internacional para el Desarrollo: Spanish Government) UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) DSWD (Department of Social Work and Development)
Project Evacuation Shelter Construction in Disaster Vulnerable Areas in Albay Millennium Development Goal Fund 1656 Albay Demo Micro Financing Program
Year 2009 and 2010 2009 to 2011 2009 and 2010
Reference: Document from Budget Office
Indicator 4-1. Do land use policies and planning regulations for housing and critical risk reducing infrastructure (i.e. drainage, flood controls) take current and projected climate risk and disaster risk into account?
As secretariat of Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (PDRRMC) (refer to 10-3), APSEMO upon the instruction of the governor, Salceda, as PDRRMC Chairman, coordinates the regular inspections of all vital infrastructure and critical resources in the province that are being done by concerned PDRRMC members. The way to inspect infrastructure, engineers from Provincial Engineering Office (PEO) go around periodically (everyday) and check by visual observation, such as Surface Cracks (concrete roads), Eroded/Scoured Road Shoulder, Potholes (asphalt roads), Eroded/scoured Bridge approach and Abutment, Cracks on Girders (bridges). In case that mayors request for repair or reconstruct damaged infrastructures the PEO is the one working to assist the LGU whether to directly do the job or make a proposal for external support.
Reference: Interview with Office of the Provincial Engineer, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 4-2. Are critical public facilities and infrastructure located in high risk areas adequately assessed for all hazard risks and safety?
They are directly assessed by PEO and APSEMO in coordination of National Agencies like, PHIVOLCS, MGB, Bureau of Fire Prevention and make recommendation if fit for occupancy or not or if qualified for added investment or not. This is done pursuant to Executive Order of the governor, Salceda, on earthquake and landslide.
Reference: Mail from Engineer, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 4-3. Have adequate measures been undertaken to protect these facilities and infrastructure from damage during disasters?
• Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation through structural protection dikes are the basic intervention initiated by the governor, Salceda, to protect critical facilities. The Governor likewise had instructed the concerned agencies including PEO and APSEMO the big investment in critical/high risk areas must be avoided especially if preventive structure against disaster impact is not possible.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 4-4. Does your local government have an emergency operations centre (EOC) and/or an emergency communication system?
Provincial Government of Albay established Provincial Disaster Operation Center at the building where APSEMO, Provincial Health Office, Provincial Social Welfare Office, CIRCA, AMDGO, DILG are located (one stop shop). When Warning Level Number 1 (Monitoring/Alert) is issued for typhoon/volcanic eruption/flash flood and debris flow, the Center is activated. When Warning Level Number 2 (Preparatory), an emergency meeting is held at the Center by PDCC (Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council). The Center functions as center of communication (information), decision making and analysis. Even media come to the Center for getting information in emergency. When any threat is detected, upon instruction of the governor, Salceda, EOC is activated 24 hours and all PDRRMC member agencies report to EOC for meetings and decision making. This system had become part of the operation protocol of PDRRMC. Also, transportation facilities and other emergency support services are pre-positioned at the center and other strategic places in the three districts of Albay. The communication equipment, essential for emergency operation installed at the APSEMO and the cities as well as municipalities were secured by the governor through AECID grant.
The Center is equipped with
-Furniture and equipment
- Rubber Boats
- Rescue equipment
- Portable Weather Station
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, Presentation by Albay Governor, Building Resilient Communities
Indicator 5-1. Have local schools and hospitals received special attention for “all hazard” risk assessments in your local authority?
The schools have special attention on risk information. This is part of the safe school program of the governor, Salceda. That is why construction of Emergency Education Facilities had started in 2008 to protect school children from harm way through funding allocation for Albay Province and AECID. They are the newly constructed facilities located in the cities and municipalities around Mayon Volcano that are typhoon and earthquake proof and constructed under the supervision of the Provincial Government of Albay.
Also, the governor, Salceda, had sourced funding support from JICA for additional Emergency Education Facilities to be constructed in other vulnerable areas in Albay for Flood, landslide and mudflow.
By Comprehensive Infrastructure Development and DRR Plan, elementary schools are recommended to be designed to withstand a wind speed of at least 250kph because most of the schools are with G.I roofing which are easily blown away during the strong typhoons. And the plan indicates that there are school buildings located in high risk areas that need to be relocated to safe sites.
Reference: Comprehensive Infrastructure Development and DRR Plan, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 5-2. Are all main hospitals safe from disasters and accessible in emergencies?
The governor, Salceda, entered a Memorandum of Agreement with the Bicol Regional Teaching & Training Hospital (BRTTH) for the co-management of provincial managed hospitals for better care and operation especially during disasters, making the populace better cared for during these times. And after disasters, the local government together with the hospital administrator assesses the building and hospital functions.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO and AMDGO
Indicator 5-3. Do the local government or other levels of government have special programs in place to regularly assess public infrastructure (especially schools & hospitals) for maintenance, seismic stability, general safety, weather related risks etc.?
Upon the instructions of the governor the provincial engineer and the APSEMO evaluate schools and hospitals that require supports. He also requires heads of hospitals and schools to submit reports to include requirements that need support for improvement through the local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Funds. Those that cannot be covered by the government fund are endorsed by the governor, in his capacity as PDRRMC Chairman, to the appropriate funding in form of foreign grants.
In the case of school, principals yearly submit record card to show the condition of their buildings. This card is made by School Physical Facility Coordinator who is a teacher with little background of building in each school. Then, four of the staff of Division of Physical Facilities, Department of Education (Albay) separately visits the schools and validates the data. For minor repair, SBRMS (School Building Repair Maintenance Scheme) is available to each school, but it is up to 100,000 Peso. For major repair, staff of Division of Physical Facilities asks engineers of Department of Education to assess. As to financial support, 4 million Peso is allocated from Albay Province as well as 10 million Peso from the Department of Education.
In case of hospitals, a variety of staff from licensing officer, doctors and engineers and so on from Department of Health conducts annual inspection in terms of building layout, manpower, and supply. Moreover, hospitals have to meet the requirement to have Disaster Management Committee and have Disaster Management Plan of the hospital. In case that hospitals cannot meet the requirements, the Department has authority not to give license.
Reference: Interview with Department of Health and mail from Department of Health, Interview with Department of Education in Albay, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 5-4. Are regular disaster preparedness drills undertaken in schools?
The office of APSEMO has standing instruction from the governor to provide technical assistance to Department of Education for the regular conduct of drills on fire, earthquake as well as warning and evacuation on flood, landslides and mudflows. The respective heads of the recipient institutions are taught how to develop scenario and drill plan. They are as well assisted to organized quick response team as actors during emergency. The teams are the once conducting table-top-exercise and actual drills with supervision for APSEMO technical staff only during the first two drills. The succeeding drills are done independently by them so APSEMO can transfer to new recipient of similar support. Several local drills and exercises are conducted under the direct supervision of the governor. He even conducted in 2010 drills and rescue competitions with personal incentives from him provided through cash prices.
In case of Daraga National High School, simultaneous earthquake and fire drills were held twice a year with support of APSEMO. Their way of drill is: before the drills, teachers get lectures by APSEMO; after conducting the drills, APSEMO gives a lecture to students; after that, they have evaluation for teachers by APSEMO for the future better drills.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, Interview with Daraga National High School
Indicator 6-1. Are local government DRR policies, strategies and implementation plans included within existing land-use and development plans (including community-based disaster risk management)?
The governor, Salceda, had issued executive order mandating APSEMO to become a regular member of the PLUC (Provincial Land Use Committee). This facilitates the integration of DRR policies, strategies and system in the land use plan. Upon the initiative also of the governor, Salceda,, Provincial Government of Albay is also using SIMCLIMS (the integrated modeling system for assessing impacts and adaptation to climatic variability and change), a customized software for Albay, as guide in the preparation of CLUP, and REDAS (seismic hazard simulation software that aims to produce hazard and risk maps immediately after the occurrence of a strong and potentially damaging earthquake or a scenario of earthquake). Aside from this, Albay province is also in the process of conducting soil analysis of all the cities and municipalities and three of LGUs have already finished (Polangui, Ligao and Tiwi).
Reference: Innovative Humanitarian Response within a disaster risk reduction and management model, Interview with APSEMO, Policy Brief of CIRCA
Indicator 6-2. Are land use regulations and building codes, health and safety codes enforced across all development zones and building types?
As mentioned above, APSEMO integrates Disaster Risk Reduction into Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP). As a secretariat of PDCC, APSEMO has an authority to issue certification to assure the land is safe from disasters as shown in the right hand side. The certification issued by APSEMO has gained recognition from Business Sectors as certification is a requirement for loan applicants, especially from the commercial banks are required to secure certification from APSEMO for the purpose of protecting investment and business interest of the banks. Certifications issued are consistent with the Hazard Assessment and field investigation reports submitted to APSEMO by PHIVOLCS and MGB. The Governor of Albay, Salceda, is the only Local Chief Executive in the country that implemented this safety procedures supporting business sectors.
In a private property, inspection depends on request from owners. For other facilities, cities/municipalities have responsibility to tell to APSEMO any building threat or damage. Once APSEMO needs to inspect, it sends evaluation team, consists of Provincial Engineer, City/Municipality Engineer, Fire Protection, Geologist and staff of APSEMO. The first assessment is to decide whether the buildings are fit for occupancy or not. If fit, the second inspection is to determine whether to recommend for retrofitting or conduct simple repair. Then, the team estimates the cost. This series of technical support is free of charge. In the case of private properties, the owners have to pay for retrofitting or repair. In the case of schools and hospitals, they ask respectively the Department of Education and Department of Health for fund to retrofitting or repair. If schools and hospitals are concluded as not to fit for occupancy, APSEMO will recommend temporary closures of the schools and hospitals. The governor had ordered the Provincial Engineer and the APSEMO Department Head to conduct regular meeting with the city and municipal engineers of the province on matters of building safety.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, presentation of the governor
Indicator 6-3. Is there a need to build or strengthen existing regulations (e.g. land use, building codes etc) to support disaster risk reduction in your local authority?
The strengthening of local land-use regulation is in progress but the building code of the Philippines is not within the jurisdiction of the LGU to amend or strengthen. LGU just adapts the National Building Code. All proposed land uses done by the cities and municipalities of the province are enacted by the Provincial Board for adaption and approval by the governor before they are implemented. The governor had signed an executive order mandating the APSEMO, PHIVOLCS and Mines and Geo Science Bureau to become a regular member of the Provincial Land Use Committee so that they are part in the local regulations to integrate DRR in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan where building regulations and policy support on development strategies are strictly considered.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 7-1. Does the local government regularly conduct awareness-building or education programs on DRR and disaster preparedness for local community?
APSEMO conducts drill for school teachers once a year and for barangay more frequently. To school students, APSEMO asks schools to have drills every quarter. At schools, based on invitation from schools, APSEMO provide technical support for hazard awareness, preparedness drill and earthquake drill. The Governor through APSEMO had organized Provincial Pool of Trainers to conduct and/or assist the communities in their DRR Programs that includes the conduct of drills and exercise. The governor, Salceda, even hired clowns for DRR and Hazard awareness program for community children and schools children through games and magic.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 7-2. Does the local government provide in-depth training in risk reduction for local officials and community leaders?
APSEMO conducts drills more than once a year. In addition, after barangay captain election, APSEMO conducts seminar and trainings to all of elected officials and community leaders. In the case of 2010, the governor, Salceda, through APSEMO had sent proposal to fund for the training through Provincial Government of Albay to Spanish Government and the proposal was approved. The Governor had initiated this program for the communities to be completely trained on disaster preparedness.
Moreover, CIRCA, institutionalized by the governor, Salceda, is conducting Capacity Development on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation (Community Vulnerability Assessment) for the preparation of Barangay Contingency Plan for DDR and CCA for all of some 720 barangay officials.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 7-3. Do local schools and colleges provide courses, education or training in disaster and climate risk reduction as part of the education curriculum?
Under the executive leadership of the governor, Salceda, the Provincial Council of Albay passed Resolution No. 2007-24 proclaiming the Province of Albay as one of the first and pioneering prototype province that will adopt climate change adaptation in August, 2007. Albay in Action on Climate Change (A2C2) was launched and it was resolved that environment shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities. Through CIRCA, the governor initiated the project “Mainstreaming of Climate Change Adaptation to the Philippine Education Curriculum.”
CIRCA, demonstrates lessen exemplars for schools, monitors and evaluate. The lesson exemplars were subjected to a very thorough process of critiquing, editing, revising, reediting, rewriting and finalizing with the curriculum experts at the Department of Education. The said lesson plans were written in English for subjects (Science, Mathematics, English, Technology and Livelihood Education, Music, Arts and Physical Education, etc) and in Filipino for subjects (Filipino, etc). In the case of Daraga National High School, with support of CIRCA, teachers integrated CCA into their curriculum. They developed modules of Science, English and Filipino to take CCA into their normal class schedule, such as English reading with the theme of CCA, sentence construction to learn how to use correct prepositions, etc letting students take in CCA.
Bicol University located in Albay Province has been contributing to DAA and CCA with 20,000 students as resource for activities. It aims to educate for building a Model Disaster Resilient Community characterized by common aspirations whose citizens had been transformed and that contributes to attain sustainable development. The governor, Salceda, had initiated to establish financial and technical support to the Bicol University for institutionalization of Emergency Paramedic Training Unit in the university. It was established since 2008. The governor, Salceda, had likewise directed APSEMO to provide technical support to Bicol University for the establishment and creation of the new course, Master in Health Emergency and Disaster Management, started in year 2009 as regular course in the graduate school. In addition, Bicol University has a volunteer programme and a diplomat programme on DRR, in collaboration with CIRCA on building up database, conducting research on climate change adaptation and enhancing academic programmes.
Reference: Daraga National High School, Interview with Bicol University, Interview with APSEMO, Policy Brief of CIRCA
Indicator 7-4. Are citizens aware of evacuation plans or drills for evacuations when necessary?
The innovation of the governor, Salceda, in achieving Zero Casualty in the province is communities based disaster preparedness focused on Early Warning System, Communication Protocol and Evacuation Procedures. These three major DRR components are always done completely to maintain Zero Casualty in the province during flood, landslide, volcanic eruption etc. The Governor allocated training budget to APSEMO to ensure all barangays and municipalities and cities with rain gauge are well trained for the LGUs are the first line of defense for disaster avoidance.
And as mentioned in detail later (9-5), it is designated that which evacuation shelter accommodates which Barangay. And for Barangays in danger zone of Mayon volcano and flood, some schools located in safe zone are designated as evacuation center. Barangay officials got training to check how to evacuate to the distant school as evacuation space.
Reference: Daraga National High School, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 8-1. Does the local government support the restoration, protection and sustainable management of ecosystems services (e.g. forests, coastal zones, wetlands, water resources, livestock, fisheries, river-basins) to reduce local vulnerability and protection against floods, drought, landslides or seismic hazards?
• The governor, Salceda, had established CIRCA (Center for Initiatives and Research for Climate Adaptation) and allocated funds for the environmental protection and for the rehabilitation of mangroves and eco-system. CIRCA, established in 2008, primarily focuses on research, policy formulations studies and information management of climate change and its adaptation, and climate risk reduction. It is a consortium among the Provincial Government of Albay, universities (Bicol University and the University of the Philippines Los Banos), international research organization (World Agroforestry Center) and regional office of a national department (Environmental Management Bureau of the Department of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources Region V). This organization also contributes to “zero casualty” program, which is a combination of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures. With its interdisciplinary knowledge, it has objects to enhance the coping abilities of Albay residents to the threats brought about by the changing climate and to specifically develop the environmental awareness of the various livelihood sectors of the province. Some of its aims are to enhance awareness of the various sectors of the threats by a changing climate; to conduct and explore concrete policy studies that will support better climate risk adaptation; to promote climate risk adaptation by enhancing resilience of the most vulnerable groups, such as programs for river cleanup against flood every week, mangrove plantation against tsunami, sea-level rise, coastal erosion every week.
Reference: Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, Interview with APSEMO, Policy Brief of CIRCA
Indicator 8-2. Do civil society organizations and citizens support the restoration, protection and sustainable management of ecosystems services?
To get participating from community for river cleanup, CIRCA educates them in the importance of CCA as well as gives 5kg of rice for participants to promote projects of CCA. This is a part of “Food for Work Programme” and educational and information campaign advocacy. On the other hand, mangrove plantation does not give anything for participants, residents cooperate in planting. Moreover, CIRCA conducts such the projects in cooperation with schools, getting participation from students and educating them on CCA with firsthand experience. The CIRCA is the technical arm of the governor, Salceda, for this. All projects are under the direct supervision of the governor.
Reference: Interview with CIRCA, Interview with APSEMO, Policy Brief of CIRCA
Indicator 8-3. Is the private sector a contributor and supporter of environmental and ecosystems management in your local authority?
One of the policies established under A2C2 led by the governor, Salceda, is Special Proclamation Resolution 2007-04 which stipulates that all businesses to be established in the province should be consistent with climate change adaptation otherwise it will not be granted a business permit to operate. Taken some examples, the Energy Development Corp. (EDC) has been assisting Albay in its mangrove reforestation program and other environmental projects through cooperatives and farmers’ groups in its geothermal reservation area. As located in Albay province heavily affected by climate change and its-related disasters, Palanog Cement Factory (Business Sector) is practicing the substitution of fossil fuels by rice hull to reduce green house gas emission.
Reference: Province of Albay, PH: Responding to the challenge of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 9-1. Do local institutions have access to financial reserves and essential emergency provisions to support effective disaster response and early recovery?
By the Philippine Law, all local governments shall set aside 5% of their total annual budget as Calamity Fund for victims of natural disasters. This funding is allocated through the approval of governor, Salceda,.
Aside from the regular DRR budget, the governor secures funding support national and foreign assistance and grants from UNDP, AECID, UNICEF and the likes for the effective disaster response and recovery for the relocation and construction of emergency evacuation centers as well as repair of the damages facilities He also allocates budget for the annual premiums of the school insurance.
Reference: Innovative Humanitarian Response within a disaster risk reduction and management model, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 9-2. Are early warning centres established, adequately staffed (or on-call personnel) and well resourced (power back ups, equipment redundancy etc.) at all times?
Albay has redundancy of communication. For volcanic and typhoon hazard, information flow is established from APSEMO to mayors, barangay leaders and to residents. In addition, Provincial Government of Albay disseminates warning by a variety of tools. It disseminates directly to residents by radio and local broadcast media, to barangay leaders by SMS which is provided by Albay province with support of SMART (Sim-card company), VHF back-up communication, fax, email and mobile communication facilities for communication with mayors. VHF back-up communication is operated 24 hours in emergency. Moreover, barangays have rain gauges so that warning signal of flood comes from municipality/city and barangays. To increase the accuracy of projection of typhoon route, the governor, Salceda, signed an agreement with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for a 1.3 billion pesos (8.8 million U.S. dollars) grant which will finance the purchase of Doppler radar and establishment of a flood forecasting center, as well as the construction of more evacuation centres. To make early warning system work effectively, the governor, Salceda, had donated to PAGASA a piece of land from his personally owed property for site of relay station of warning communication facility.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience
Indicator 9-3. Are regular training drills and rehearsal carried out with the participation of relevant government, non-governmental, local leaders and volunteers?
Drills regularly held to pretest contingency plans on volcanic eruption, earthquake, typhoon and fire at
-offices under supervision of provincial government
Besides of the regular drills and exercise, there are also community disaster preparedness and response activities focusing on training and educating people as shown in the figure below. Funding and technical staff are allocated through the efforts and approval of the governor, Salceda. Training and drills conducted under the leadership of the governor is a multi-stakeholder activity where PAGASA, PHIVOLCS, Military, PNRC, OCD, LGUs and NGOs are working according to their respective function, demonstrating team effort in any DRR undertaking.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO, presentation of the Governor
Indicator 9-4. Are sufficient amounts of emergency supplies (stockpiles of relief supplies) available at all times?
The Provincial Government of Albay has prepared emergency supplies and equipment for evacuation and rescuing the survivors. The Operational equipment is combination of NGAs support and Provincial Government organic facilities prepositioned by the governor ahead of the actual evacuation time. Albay preparation includes:
-Rubber boats -Trucks
-Ambulances -Passenger trucks
-Helicopter -Fire trucks
-Water tank -Water purifying machine
-Vehicle equipped with communication gadgets
-Canned food -Rice and bottles of water
-Stand-by 15,000 bags of rice (Agreement with National Food Authority)
In addition, to ensure compliance that residents of identified disaster-risk areas are evacuated to evacuation sites in the province, each family is given 5 kilograms of rice to last them about three days. It is based on the Governor Salceda’s belief that evacuation assistance is their right as it becomes the duty of Provincial Government. Salceda says “We train our people to make disaster response a part of their live so that they will automatically know that to do when [disaster strikes]. It becomes their second nature (quoted from “Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience”).” A total of 160,00residents can be evacuated in a single day. The relief efforts are initially provided by the governor sustaining few days before the external supports arrive.
Reference: Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 9-5. Are emergency shelters available?
When devastating typhoons hit Albay in 2006, evacuation centers could no longer accommodate victims of continuous typhoons. Now three types of emergency shelters are available:
i. Permanent Evacuation Centres: 6 emergency evacuation centers (supported by AECID [Agencia Españna Cooperacion International Para El Desarollo]) and 6 emergency evacuation centers will be constructed (supported by JICA [Japan International Cooperation Agency]) which are used as classrooms or municipal activity center in normal days and will be able to accommodate in to 10,200 evacuees.
ii. School Camps: Department of Education identified 5,128 classrooms as emergency shelters in case of disaster which can accommodate 320,000 evacuees.
iii. Evacuation Center for communities vulnerable to disaster: Schools such as Daraga National High School is designated as evacuation center for residents living in danger zone of Mayon volcano and flood. When there is a volcanic or flood threat, all of the residents will evacuate to the school located in safe place from the volcano or flood.
The project land and site developments of relocation are counterpart of the Province of Albay secured and initiated through the efforts and approval of the governor, Salceda,
Reference: Championing Climate Change Adaptation: The Albay Experience, governor’s presentation, interview with Daraga National High School, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 9-6. Are safe evacuation routes identified, mapped and maintained and well communicated to the community?
There are safe evacuation routes identified in the community or even in the resettlement sites and people in the community are timely provided the training including the workshop to get better understanding how and what to do in time of emergency. In coordination with barangay officials, a communication system was devised where a graduated warning system is done. The community warning system enables residents to undertake pre-emptive evacuation measures (see the table below for one of the examples). A census of affected residents also ensures that everyone is accommodated in evacuation centres. To avoid overcrowding in evacuation centers, every family is assigned specific areas what is supposed to relocate. APSEMO has devised a manner by which people are educated and constantly reminded that in disaster mitigation, the proper approach can help save lives. Evacuation plans are approved by the governor, Salceda, while evacuation movements are activated through the evacuation advisory issued by the governor as chair of the PDRRMC (Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council).
ALBAY PRE-EMPTIVE EVACUATION DECISION RULE
Proximity/Gravity 80kph 120KPH More than 120kph
Direct Hit Rainfall
(activation of EOC) Evacuation at TS2 Evacuation at TS1
15% (based on PAGASA tracking) Rainfall
(activation of EOC) Evacuation at TS3 Evacuation at TS22
Within radius Rainfall
(activation of EOC) Evacuation at TS3 Evacuation at TS3
TS: Typhoon Signal
Reference: Interview with APSEMO and presentation of the governor
Indicator 9-7. Does a contingency plan or a community disaster preparedness plan exist for all major hazards?
APSEMO has Action Plan for typhoon, volcano, sea water disaster, fire, landslide, and flooding. The principles of them are: to evacuate not rescue, team work not individual play, and protection of life as the first priority while critical properties as the second priority. They made a pre-emptive evacuation decision rule to guide and execute safe evacuation movements as mentioned in 9-6, which made Albay possible to attain zero casualties since the governor, Salceda, elected. The action plans were all reviewed and edited by the governor himself before they became official action and contingency plans of the Provincial Government of Albay.
Reference: Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 10-1. Does the city / municipality have access to resources and expertise to assist victims of psycho-social (psychological, emotional) impacts of disasters?
The governor, Salceda, created psycho-social task force which consists of representatives from the Government offices, academe, NGO and so on. Its strategies are Education Information, Physical Sports, Livelihood, Entertainment and Life Coaching and stress debriefing/ psycho-social care.
Reference: Presentation by the governor, Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 10-2. Are disaster risk reduction measures integrated into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation activities (i.e. build back better, livelihoods rehabilitation)?
DRR program of the governor, Salceda, is holistic. Post Disaster or recovery projects are integral part of DRR Cycle done in Albay. The recovery programs that resolve permanently the problem is resettlement having two barangays are completely relocated while more than 20 barangays have started relocation of the most vulnerable population around Mayon Volcano and from the flood plain areas. The principle applied to recovery program of the governor is to apply permanent solution not temporary hence will no longer be affected by the next calamity of similar magnitude.
Thus, “Humanitarian Response for Recovery Plans and Programmes” from 2008 to 2010 includes disaster risk management and environmental management. For disaster risk management, disaster preparedness training, disaster drills and exercises are implemented in order that community is empowered in handling any types of disaster. For environmental management, solid waste management and enhancement programme is conducted, such as conduct tree planting, capability building on solid waste management and beautification activities.
Reference: Humanitarian Response for Recovery Plans and Programmes, Interview with Albay Mabuhay Village Federation (Anislag Resettlement Site), Interview with APSEMO
Indicator 10-3. Does the Contingency Plan (or similar plan) include an outline strategy for post disaster recovery needs including assessment tools, immediate livelihoods rehabilitation etc.?
• The contingency plan is separated for the post disaster recovery phase and pre-disaster activities of Albay PDRRMC created by the governor, Salceda. The contingency plan involves activities and guidelines needed to execute strategies at the time when emergency situation is declared. This covers activities for transportation, evacuation, warning, relief, communication, security, medical, psychosocial care, search and rescue, etc. On the other hand, Albay PDRRMC chaired by the governor, Salceda, has three distinct strategies on DRR specific for a) pre-disaster activities b) activities essential in management when emergency situation is declared and c) activities essential in management when recovery status is declared. All these activities are under the direct management and control of the governor however supported with technical staff from DRR offices of Albay Province consistent to the structure presented below.
As shown in the figure below, Albay considers from pre-disaster phase, through disaster phase, to post-disaster phase. AMDGO is in charge of resettlement sites in Albay. For the victims of disasters and residents used to live in danger zone near Mayon volcano or rivers, first, Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO) will find safe land near the new international airport, which will be completed in 2012, with support of PHIVOLCS and MGB which investigates the possible resettlement lands and propose reports on the lands (Report on the geohazard identification survey). And AMDGO conducts Household Profiling aiming to determine the socio-economic status of the households in the area to for the purpose of planning and strategizing how the resettlements will be safe and livable (Resettlement Sites Manpower Skill Profile Survey). In the case of Anislag Resettlement Site, after relocation AMDGO organized the federation covering the site, provided and coordinated capability enhancements on employment opportunities from NGOs and aid agencies to live in a new place, such as Seed Capital Assistance and Enhancement Skills Training (Adaca Based Handicraft Making, Reflexology, Hair Grooming, Para Veterinary Training, Hollow Blocks Making, Computer Repair Training), especially to women with livelihood training, equipment and market for handicraft industries, such as making doormats, bags, placemats, sinamay twine and other abaca-based products. Then, AMDGO conducted job matching, and developed a vision for the settlers. As a result, trained residents were able to develop their alternative source of income and are expected to generate more benefit after the completion of the international airport.
Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (PDRRMC)
Moreover, after Typhoon Reming in 2006, after all the devastation, education was the most affected. With the economy affected, education followed. At the tertiary level, dropouts were noted. The governor, Salceda, realizing the chain of effects of this, institutionalized the PROVINCIAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT (PED) to look after the education needs in all levels. In the tertiary level to pull the youth out of devastation, he initiated scholarships that facilitated and motivated children and parents to send back their children to school. Three scholarships in the tertiary level were opened and accessed by the students:1) Educational Assistance and/or refund of tuition fees to students at all year levels enrolled in 9 Community Colleges and 3 Bicol University satellite campuses; Brilliant Young Teachers (BRYT) Scholarship to students who belonged to the top ten percent high school graduates with at least 90% general average rating, covering full scholarship (tuition and miscellaneous book allowance and stipend); and the Albay Higher Education Contribution Scheme (AHECS)- a concessional loan facility of 5,000.00 Peso per semester per student taking a minimum of 2 up to 5 year course in eligible Albay-based public and private schools. The program did not only provide recovery on the part of the students but most specially the private academic institutions, which income is dependent upon the entries of students.
PAGASA • PHIVOLCS • Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau • Partnership with local broadcast media to disseminate the warning directly to residents • AECID-Spain • Bicol University • University of the Philippines • University of Sunshine Coast (Australia)
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